1. If the vowel is written with a digraph (see above), the accent mark is placed over the second letter of the pair. 2. ὁρά-ω horá-ō 'I see' is contracted to ὁρῶ horô with a circumflex, combining the high and low pitches of the previous vowels. Before broaching the real issue - that of Greeks’ attitude - I’ll give a personal perspective on the reconstructed pronunciation itself. and τί; tí? The adjective μέγας mégas 'great' shifts its accent to the penultimate in forms of the word that contain lambda (λ l): The masculine πᾶς pâs 'all' and neuter πᾶν pân have their accent on the ending in genitive and dative, but only in the singular: The participle ὤν ṓn 'being', genitive ὄντος óntos, has fixed accent. 8. Modern Greek has changed from Classical Greek in morphology and syntax, losing some features and gaining others. Devine and Stephens see in this the gradual loss over time of the distinction between acute and circumflex.[40]. Sometimes a final acute changes to a circumflex: Adjectives frequently have oxytone accentuation, but there are also barytone ones, and some with a contracted final syllable. Thus the accent of οἵδε hoíde does not change to a circumflex even though the vowels are long–short: The demonstratives οὗτος hoûtos 'this' and ἐκεῖνος ekeînos 'that' are both accented on the penultimate syllable. According to Devine and Stephens, it 'probably reflects a genuine process of pitch assimilation in fluent speech'.[35]. In the music the accent in the word following non-lexical words is usually on the same pitch as the non-lexical accent, not lower than it. But the word δεσπότης despótēs 'master' has a vocative accented on the first syllable: The majority of 2nd declension nouns have recessive accent, but there are a few oxytones, and a very few with an accent in between (neither recessive nor oxytone) or contracted: Words of the 'Attic' declension ending in -ως -ōs can also be either recessive or oxytone:[68]. Switch to a Greek keyboard layout, and hit « ; » before the vowel, that should place an acute accent above. [38] Another description was δίτονος dítonos 'two-toned'.[39]. Here the pitch drops and the accent appears to be retracted to the penultimate syllable: This, however, contradicts the description of the ancient grammarians, according to whom a grave became an acute (implying that there was a rise in pitch) at the end of a sentence just as it does before a comma.[47]. Ordinary compounds, that is, those which are not of the type 'object+verb', usually have recessive accent: Compounds of the type 'object–verb', if the penultimate syllable is long or heavy, are usually oxytone: But 1st declension nouns tend to be recessive even when the penultimate is long: Compounds of the type 'object+verb' when the penultimate syllable is short are usually paroxytone: But the following, formed from ἔχω ékhō 'I hold', are recessive: Adverbs formed from barytone adjectives are accented on the penultimate, as are those formed from adjectives ending in -ύς -ús; but those formed from other oxytone adjectives are perispomenon:[84], Adverbs ending in -κις -kis have penultimate accent:[85], The first three numbers have mobile accent in the genitive and dative:[86]. The diphthongs 'ει' 'οι' and 'υι' are pronounced li… In the following centuries many other grammarians wrote about Greek accentuation. The evidence for this comes from various sources. [18] Thus in a word like ἄνθρωπος ánthrōpos 'man', the first syllable was pronounced on a higher pitch than the others, but not necessarily any louder. Exception 2: Certain vocatives (mainly of the 3rd declension) have recessive accent: Exception 3: All 1st declension nouns, and all 3rd declension neuter nouns ending in -ος -os, have a genitive plural ending in -ῶν -ôn. (e) The present tense (except for the 2nd person singular) of εἰμί eimí 'I am' and φημί phēmí 'I say': These verbs can also have non-enclitic forms which are used, for example, to begin a sentence or after an elision. Example: typing w produces ς. Ex… This is a verb, and therefore the accent must go back to the left as far as the rules permit, in this case, to the penult. Switch to a Greek keyboard layout, and hit « ; » before the vowel, that should place an acute accent above. In these phrases, the accent of the second word is higher than or on the same level as that of the first word, and just as with phrases such as ἵνα Φοῖβον hína Phoîbon mentioned above, the lack of fall in pitch appears to represent some sort of assimilation or tone sandhi between the two accents: When a circumflex occurs immediately before a comma, it also regularly has a single note in the music, as in τερπνῶν terpnôn 'delightful' in the Mesomedes' Invocation to Calliope illustrated above. Examples are ἔχεις τρίποδα ékheis trípoda 'you have a tripod' or μέλπετε δὲ Πύθιον mélpete dè Púthion 'sing the Pythian' in the 2nd Delphic hymn. Despite the circumflex in εἷς heîs, the negative οὐδείς oudeís 'no one (m.)' has an acute. [90] Unlike other monosyllables, they do not move the accent to the ending in the genitive or dative: Some of these words, when accentless or accented on the final, have an indefinite meaning: When used in indirect questions, interrogative words are usually prefixed by ὁ- ho- or ὅς- hós-. When a verb is preceded by an augment, the accent goes no further back than the augment itself: Contracting verbs are underlyingly recessive, that is, the accent is in the same place it had been before the vowels contracted. With a few exceptions, the accent can come on the antepenult only if the last syllable of the word is 'light'. [109] When it follows an elision, ἐστίν estín is also accented on the final: However, the 3rd person singular ἐστί estí also has a strong form, ἔστι ésti, which is used 'when the word expresses existence or possibility (i.e. A period above the line is a Greek semi-colon (literally, half a colon), and an English semi-colon is a Greek question mark. It is thought probable that occasionally, especially at the end of a sentence, the interval was much smaller. This statement has been interpreted in different ways, but it is usually supposed that he meant not that it was always a fifth, but that this was the maximum normal difference between high and low syllables. If the gamma is followed by a second g (gamma), or followed by k (kappa), x (xsi), or c (chi), then the gamma is pronounced with an "n" sound, called a gamma nasal. I used to be able to type accents on top of letters with the Greek keyboard layout, but I forgot how. The fragments of ancient Greek music that survive, especially the two hymns inscribed on a stone in Delphi in the 2nd century BC, appear to follow the accents of the words very closely, and can be used to provide evidence for how the accent was pronounced. 1. Sft+; will give you the diaeresis, and sft+;+; will give you both (like: ΐ).My standard layout also has polytonic accents, and a bunch of other greek symbols with the altGr modifier, but I don't know if windows is alike. ',[24] Dionysius reports that in the first three words and the last there was no raised pitch, while in both ἀρβύλας arbúlas 'of the shoe' and τίθετε títhete 'place' there was a low note followed by two high ones, despite the accent on the first syllable of τίθετε títhete. The accent of a word or phrase consisted in a raising of the pitch of the voice at the accented syllable. μῶρος môros 'foolish' is oxytone in the New Testament: Personal names derived from adjectives are usually recessive, even if the adjective is not: Unlike in modern Greek, which has fixed accent in adjectives, an antepenultimate accent moves forward when the last vowel is long: The genitive plural of feminine adjectives is accented -ῶν -ôn, but only in those adjectives where the masculine and feminine forms of the genitive plural are different: In a barytone adjective, in the neuter, when the last vowel becomes short, the accent usually recedes: However, when the final -ν -n was formerly *-ντ -nt, the accent does not recede (this includes neuter participles):[80][81]. In modern practice, it replaces an acute accent in the last syllable of a word when that word is followed immediately by another word. The accents (Ancient Greek: τόνοι, romanized: tónoi, singular: τόνος, tónos) are placed on an accented vowel or on the last of the two vowels of a diphthong (ά, but αί) and indicated pitch patterns in Ancient Greek.The precise nature of the patterns is not certain, but the general nature of each is known. Of those which end in long -α -a or -η -ē, some have penultimate accent: A very few have a contracted ending with a circumflex on the last syllable: Masculine 1st declension nouns usually have penultimate accent: A few, especially agent nouns, are oxytone: There are also some with a contracted final syllable: In proparoxytone words like θάλασσα thálassa, with a short final vowel, the accent moves to the penultimate in the accusative plural, and in the genitive and dative singular, dual, and plural, when the final vowel becomes long: In words with penultimate accent, the accent is persistent, that is, as far as possible it stays on the same syllable when the noun changes case. "Serbo-Croatian pitch accent". always keep their acute accent even when followed by another word. However, in Mesomedes' hymns, especially the hymn to Nemesis, it is more common for the circumflex to be set to a single note. An important indication of the melodic nature of the Greek accent comes from the surviving pieces of Greek music, especially the two Delphic hymns (2nd century BC), the Seikilos epitaph (1st century AD), and the hymns of Mesomedes (2nd century AD). [103] Thus, verbs of three or more syllables often have an acute accent on the penult or antepenult, depending on whether the last vowel is long or short (with final -αι -ai counted as short): Monosyllabic verbs, such as βῆ bê 'he went' (poetic) and εἶ eî 'you are', because they are recessive, have a circumflex. A keraia is also used in printing modern Greek numerals. But in ᾍδης Hā́idēs 'Hades', where the diphthong is the equivalent of an alpha with iota subscript (i.e. They were gradually introduced from the 2nd century BC onwards, but did not become commonly used in manuscripts until after 600 AD. The terms used by the ancient Greek grammarians were:[2], The word barytone (βαρύτονος) refers to any word which has no accent (either acute or circumflex) on the final syllable, that is the 2nd, 3rd and 5th possibilities above. [42] In some early documents making use of written accents, a grave accent could often be added to any syllable with low pitch, not just the end of the word, e.g. Exception 1: The following words have the accent on a different syllable in the plural: The accusative singular and plural has the same accent as the nominative plural given above. 'who?' Several examples in the music illustrate this rise in pitch before a comma, for example Καλλιόπεια σοφά Kalliópeia sophá 'wise Calliope' illustrated above, or in the first line of the Hymn to Nemesis ('Nemesis, winged tilter of the scales of life'): There are almost no examples in the music of an oxytone word at the end of a sentence except the following, where the same phrase is repeated at the end of a stanza. Another place where a circumflex sometimes has a level note in the music is when it occurs in a penultimate syllable of a word, with the fall only coming in the following syllable. The written accents were used only sporadically at first, and did not come into common use until after 600 AD. also has fixed accent.[75]. -- … Lack of sleep and lack of Greek nursery rhymes means I am making up things. When an oxytone word such as ἀγαθός agathós 'good' comes before a comma or full stop, the accent is written as an acute. [98] After a paroxytone τινῶν tinôn has a circumflex: A word ending in ξ x or ψ ps behaves as if it was paroxytone and does not take an additional accent:[100], A two-syllable enclitic is also accented after an elision:[95], When two or three enclitics come in a row, according to Apollonius and Herodian, each passes its accent to the preceding word (although some modern editors have queried this):[101][102]. A very common occurrence is the double gamma, gg, which has an "ng" sound. 10. The following lines from Mesomedes' Hymn to the Sun,[52] which are very similar but with slight variations in the first five notes, show how this might have been possible: In modern Greek the accent is for the most part in the same syllable of the words as it was in ancient Greek, but is one of stress rather than pitch, so that an accented syllable, such as the first syllable in the word ἄνθρωπος, can be pronounced sometimes on a high pitch, and sometimes on a low pitch.
2020 modern greek accent marks