Glassy-winged sharpshooter underside.jpg 700 × 844; 431 KB Homalodisca vitripennis - Glassy-winged sharpshooter (16283561424).jpg 5,149 × 3,433; 7.2 MB Homalodisca vitripennis - the nymph of a Sharpshooter Leafhopper - side view.jpg 2,000 × 1,318; 352 KB While G. morrilli is native to California, G. ashmeadi is self-introduced into California from the southeast USA and may have established on incipient GWSS populations or, more likely, on the native smoke-tree sharpshooter, Homalodisca liturata Ball, (Vickerman et al. Effects of alyssum flowers on the longevity, fecundity, and sex ratio of the leafroller parasitoid, Carbone, S. S., Rivera, A. C. 2003. These results suggest that local mate competition affects progeny production because more males are produced when females encounter conspecifics and this results in more sons to mate with the daughters produced by competing females. Available at: In California, non-target species that are closely related to GWSS include the proconiine sharpshooters H. insolita (Walker) and H. liturata Ball (smoke-tree sharpshooter) ), four sharpshooters of the cicadellini tribe, Colladonus montanus (Van Duzee) (Cherry mountain leafhopper), Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret) (blue-green sharpshooter), Draeculacephala minerva Ball (green sharpshooter) and Xyphon fulgida (Nottingham) (red-headed sharpshooter), and other species of leafhoppers from a different subfamily Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum), and Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål) . The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), formerly Homalodisca coagulata, is a leaf-hopper insect native to the southeastern United States and northeastern Mexico. Biology of Gonatocerus ashmeadi. Ellers, Jacintha, Van Alphen, Jacques J. M., Sevenster, Jan G. 1998. Simberloff, D., Stiling, P., 1996. Watery excreta known as sharpshooter rain, literally rained from infested trees because there were so many GWSS feeding on trees. The density of searching female parasitoids has a significant effect on the sex ratio of progeny produced. G. triguttatus was imported from eastern Texas and released in California in 2001. G. ashmeadi is a solitary endoparasitoid that parasitizes H. vitripennis eggs and is the key natural enemy of H. vitripennis egg masses in California, providing around 12% and 19% parasitism of spring and summer H. vitripennis generations, respectively (Pilkington et al., 2005). Once in their two-month life span, female glassy-winged sharpshooters lay or oviposit eggs side-by-side in a slightly curved 'blister-like' raft below the epidermis of plant leaves, usually in masses of 10 -12 eggs, but 20 - … Of those egg masses attacked, 44% of the eggs were parasitized. Basic & Applied Ecology 4(2):107-16. 2001. These bi-weekly surveys have documented that natural enemies provide, on average, year round around egg parasitism of ~25% which may have been sufficient to cause the observed declines in GWSS densities. Native to the southeastern United States, this insect was first observed in California in 1989 and is now found throughout Southern California and Kern County. When female Gonatocerus parasitoids fail to encounter other ovipositing females on a GWSS egg mass, progeny output is strongly female-biased. Photo by Charles Ray, Auburn University, 2000. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, pp. 2009, Irvin and Hoddle 2010). (2007) demonstrated that honey-water and buckwheat significantly increased the longevity of both male and female G. ashmeadi, G. triguttatus, and G. fasciatus up to 1760%, 1223%, 1359%, respectively when compared with individuals given only water . Such high populations retarded plant growth and reduced local fruit production. Production and release of A. epos was discontinued in 2009 after no recoveries were made from GWSS eggs collected from field release sites (D. Morgan, CDFA, pers. In contrast to predictions, parasitism rates of G. deleoni on H. vitripennis eggs was 42% lower than those demonstrated by G. tuberculifemur (Irvin and Hoddle, 2010; Irvin and Hoddle, unpublished data). Ecology 77 (7): 1965–1974. In: denBoer, P. J., Gradwell, G. R. Introduced parasitic wasps could control glassy-winged sharpshooter. comm. Flanders, Stanley E. 1965. Canadian Entomologist 95: 785-792. At this time naturally occurring parasitism of GWSS eggs was very low on the island of Mo’orea, the immediate neighboring island to Tahiti. Trials were conducted to compare egg age preference, competitive ability, and behavior between G. deleoni and G. ashmeadi, the dominant parasitoid of California. ), Ecological Engineering for Pest Management: Advances in Habitat Manipulation for Arthropods, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, VIC, Australia, pp. A female biased sex ratio is a favorable attribute because faster parasitoid population growth results which may increase the likelihood of pest control and greater numerical domination by this parasitoid. The Sharpshooter is native to the southeastern United States, but was probably introduced to California around 1990. 68-92. Because of the serious nature of this problem and the vast sums of money at stake, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), a United States society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research with a mandate requiring it to advise the Federal Government on scientific and technical matters, has subjected these research programs to evaluation and assessment (CDFA 2003). This cicadellid feeds almost exclusively on xylem fluid, a low nutritional quality food, which results in insects ingesting over 100× their bodyweight in … It has been demonstrated in laboratory studies that there is a positive correlation between size of female G. ashmeadi and initial egg load at time of birth (i.e., females < 12 hrs of age (Irvin and Hoddle 2009). Species identity of geographically distinct populations of the glassy-winged sharpshooter parasitoid. Reduction of GWSS populations on Tahiti following the release of ... Parasitism of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Homoptera : Cicadellidae): Functional response and superparasitism by Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae). Gonatocerus ashmeadi, G. morrilli and G. triguttatus are solitary endoparasitoids that lay one egg into each individual GWSS egg within an egg mass. Parasitoid larvae pupate within GWSS eggs and then chew circular holes through which they emerge in search of mates and new host eggs to attack. A. epos is commonly collected as a parasitoid of grape leafhopper (Erythroneura spp. 2010). A key to the Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) egg parasitoids of proconiine sharpshooters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the Nearctic region, with description of two new species of, Triapitsyn, S.V., Logarzo, G.A., De León, J.H., Virla, E.G., 2008. (both Cicadellinae: Proconiini) (Jones et al., 2005a). College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Prepared by the Applied Biological Control Research Laboratory. Quarantine studies were performed to determine G. deleoni’s viability and potential to be introduced into California as a biological control agent. “It is unlikely glassy-winged sharpshooters would ever become well established in the Sacramento Valley or the northern San Joaquin Valley. This was the first time A. epos was collected from a sharpshooter species. The net result of higher male production when several females are foraging on the same egg mass is a greater genetic contribution by females whose sons mate with more daughters. © 2020 Regents of the University of California. 2000). Map views: view summarized survey results for this map pest page. Biological control of aphids in lettuce crops using in-Weld insectaries. Although A. epos has no evolutionary history with H. vitripennis, the Minnesota strain was introduced into California in 2005, making it a “new association” biological control agent of H. vitripennis in California. In: Tariq, M. A., Oswalt, S., Blincoe, P., Ba, A., Lorick, T., Esser, T. Irvin and Hoddle(2006) demonstrated that approximately 1 male : 8 females, are produced for G. ashmeadi, 1 : 14 for G. triguttatus, and 1 : 9 and for G. fasciatus when these parasitoids don’t encounter other females of the same species trying to parasitize eggs in the same egg mass. Barratt, B.I.P., Howarth, F.G., Withers, T.M., Kean, J.M., Ridley, G.S., 2010. Homalodisca liturata, a native sharpshooter from the same tribe and genus and most similar to GWSS (Figures 10 and 11) in its egg laying and generalist plant feeding habits, is expected to be utilized by introduced Gonatocerus species for the classical biological control of H. vitripennis. fastidiosa related research programs was 64 (Esser and West 2010). Grape growers in Riverside and San Diego counties in 1998 and 1999 accrued estimated losses of $37.9 million because of GWSS-X. Chen, W. L., Leopold, R. A., Harris, M. O. Glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis. Observations on the biology of, Triapitsyn S.V., Phillips, P.A. Irvin et al. The parasitoid was released on May 2, 2005 on Tahiti. Biology and host range of two South American egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), possible biocontrol agents for glassy-winged sharpshooter (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Proconiini). The insect currently infests most of southern California and some of Butte, Fresno, Imperial, Kern Sacramento, Santa Barbra, Santa Clara, and Tulare counties. GIS is used as a decision support tool in the area wide management of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) in California.      4.3 Anagrus epos5 Non-Target Impact Studies6 Natural Enemy Phenology in Southern California 2009]; or D) competition from G. ashmeadi simply prevent A. epos establishing. Although the pests rarely cause immediate damage, they excrete copious amounts of sticky liquid that hardens on fruit, and also gives foliage a pale, whitewashed appearance. 2008) so was expected to reproduce and proliferate at times of the year when GWSS eggs are not present. It was imported from Argentina into quarantine in Texas in 2001, and into California in 2002, and reared on egg masses of H. vitripennis, (Triapitsyn et al., 2008). The climate in these areas differs greatly to that of the southeastern USA where H. vitripennis is native (Jones 2003). Like G. tuberculifemur, G. deleoni has no evolutionary history with H. vitripennis and if released into California, this would make G. deleoni a “new association” biological control agent of H. vitripennis. Between May and October 2005, 13,786 parasitoids were released at 27 sites in Tahiti. 2003) Date of U.S. Introduction: Introduced to California by 1990 (Blua … Glassy-winged sharpshooter on a grape leaf - Peggy Greb USDA, Agricultural Research Service. Citrus variegated chlorosis bacterium: Axenic culture, pathogenicity, and serological relationships with other strains of, Hernandez-Martinez, Rufina, de la Cerda, Karla A., Costa, Heather S., et al. Pilkington, L.J., Irvin, N.A., Boyd, E.A., Hoddle, M.S., Triapitsyn, S.V., Carey, B.G., Jones, W.A., Morgan, D.J.W., 2005. Parasitism of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Homoptera : Cicadellidae): Functional response and superparasitism by Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae). 405-418. A study conducted by the University of California found that between 1994 and 2000, Pierce’s disease caused nearly $30 million in losses and destroyed over 1,000 acres of grape vines in Northern California (CDFA 2008). The habitats occupied by three other native sharpshooters, however, have less overlap with GWSS in addition to being from a different tribe. Although G. ashmeadi shares these characteristics with pro-ovigenic species (i.e., species that are born with a full complement of eggs at birth and do not mature more eggs as they are oviposited [Jervis et al., 2001]), evidence of oosorption and the process of egg maturation demonstrated in recent laboratory studies suggest that G. ashmeadi is a syn-ovigenic species which can mature more eggs in excess of those females are initially born with (Irvin and Hoddle, 2009). Traps are located using GIS/GPS, and then serviced using portable data terminals. Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis: The Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter is a serious threat to California's agriculture. Table 1 lists a number of X. fastidiosa strains and their ornamental host sources (extracted from Hernandez-Martinez et al. Introduction. Pierce’s Disease Program Annual Report to the Legislature 2008. GWSS has also successfully invaded French Polynesia (the Society Islands, Marquesas and Austral Island groups), [established 1999 (Cheou 2002)], Hawaii [established 2004 (Hoover 2004)], Easter Island [established 2005 (Sandra Ide pers. Kazmer, David J., Luck, Robert F. 1995. CDFA, 2008. Trials were conducted to compare egg age preference, competitive ability, and behavior between G. tuberculifemur and G. ashmeadi, the dominant parasitoid of California. GWSS transmits and … The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis, formerly known as H. coagulata) is a large leafhopper insect from the family Cicadellidae, similar to other species of sharpshooter… This suggests these two parasitoids will attack host eggs without preference as long as eggs are of a suitable age for oviposition. Field tests of the size-fitness hypothesis in the egg parasitoid, Krugner, R., Johnson, M. W., Groves, R. L., Morse, J. G. 2008. American Naturalist 99 (909): 489-494. ), Enhancing Biological Control—Habitat Management to Promote Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests. 2006) Common Name: Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), xylophagous leafhopper. Parasitism by G. fasciatus was consistently significantly lower (17.4-76.0% lower) than both G. ashmeadi and G. triguttatus for all three experimental studies. Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter. Incursion of glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata in French Polynesia. Environmental risk assessment of egg parasitoids from South America: non-target field and laboratory host range in Argentina and the U. S. In: Tariq, M. A., Blincoe, P., Mochel, M., Oswalt, S., Esser, T. This most likely occurred because of the advanced stage of development of the GWSS embryo and parasitoids that did emerge had been oviposited into sterile or dead host eggs lacking a GWSS embryo (Irvin and Hoddle 2004). comm. Parasitoids from the native range of GWSS in the southeastern US have been introduced to bolster populations of resident species because their establishment may increase the efficacy of resident populations of control agents. 2004). It is thought that GWSS invaded and established in southern California sometime around 1990 (Sorensen and Gill 1996). fastidiosa also threatens other crops, such as almonds ($2.8 billion), citrus ($1.1 billion), and stone fruit ($1 billion); ornamental shade trees are also at risk. Johnson, J. Additional information. How risky is biological control? California Department of Food and Agriculture, 7-10 December 200, San Diego, CA., pp. Investigation of the field host range in Argentina demonstrated that G. tuberculifemur successfully parasitized at least five species of Cicadellini, a tribe to which H. vitripennis does not belong (Jones et al., 2005b). It was later discovered that these parasitoids from Argentina, originally believed to be a single-species sample, actually contained a second distinct species, which was later named Gonatocerus deleoni. This rapid movement between islands strongly suggested that quarantines that were established to reduce GWSS were not working and people were still moving plants infested with GWSS eggs. These are areas subject to program regulations because of the presence of the glassy-winged sharpshooter. This is not only due to increased longevity allowing females more time to parasitize hosts, but also shows a direct increase in fecundity due to improved nutrition. This form of biological control with non-co-evolved natural enemies is called ‘new association’ biological control (Hokkanen and Pimentel 1989). In 2002, primary producers incurred additional economic costs resulting from containment activities such as inspections of export nursery stock and shipments of bulk grapes and citrus from H. vitripennis infested counties (CDFA 2003). There are currently no records of X. fastidiosa in French Polynesia, Hawaii, Easter Island and the Cook Islands. Incursion of glassy-winged sharpshooter, Costa H.S., Blua, M.J., Bethke, J.A., Redak, R.A. 2000. Gonatocerus fasciatus is gregarious, and females deposit two, rarely three eggs per GWSS egg, yielding multiple parasitoid offspring per host egg (Triapitsyn 2006). Furthermore, 39.6% of time allocated by female G. fasciatus was spent off leaves with GWSS egg masses, and it was observed that G. ashmeadi and G. triguttatus often aggressively protected the GWSS egg mass, sometimes excluding access by G. fasciatus. G. ashmeadi reproduces through a process called arrhenotoky (Triapitsyn et al., 2003), where female offspring arise from fertilized diploid eggs, and haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs (Flanders, 1965). In 2010, average peak population densities of GWSS were only ~7% of what was measured in 2002, indicating that populations of this pest have declined by around 93% at this study site.
2020 glassy winged sharpshooter map